Stoodley Pike is a 1,300-foot (400 m) hill in the south Pennines, noted for the 121 foot Stoodley Pike Monument at its summit, which dominates the moors above Todmorden.Inscription above the entrance is worn & covered with lichen, but it is legible & reads: "Stoodley Pike.April 11, 1814 - "The Treaty of Fontainebleau was established in Fontainebleau (France) between Napoleon I [1769-1821] & representatives from the Austrian Empire, Russia & Prussia.
the Red Cross in 1864 and the International Olympic Committee in 1894."100 Years of Peace making: A history of the International Peace Bureau and other international peace movement organisations and networks" by Rainer Santi, Pax frlag, International Peace Bureau (IPB), Geneva (Switzerland), January 1991. Founded by abolitionist Thomas Clarkson [1760-1846] & others. Local peace societies (part of a liberal movement for human rights, social improvements, free trade, abolition of slavery & an end to war) start to appear when the Napoleonic wars finally end in 1815.The US & UK societies were initially inspired by religious and moral considerations, under the influence of the Quakers' principles of non-violence.-- Since World War II, there has been a plethora of so-called peace conferences, congresses, and festivals (and of official government conferences), but very few privately organized peace conferences have been able to sustain themselves for more than a few years.One exception is the Pugwash Conference on Science & World Affairs which began in 1957 and still meets annually.